As part of the 2023 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Work, Innovation, Productivity and Skills, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) held a session to discuss how policymakers should respond to the latest developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI). With the advent of new technologies such as deep learning and autonomous systems, the session aimed to explore the challenges and opportunities of these new forms of AI and identify ways stakeholders can use this policy to ensure that benefits are maximized, and risks are minimized.


The session held last 27 March was attended by representatives from the academe, government, and civil society, who discussed AI’s role in addressing critical social challenges. Participants also discussed the importance of ensuring that AI is developed in a way that is consistent with fundamental human rights, including privacy, non-discrimination, and fairness.

Speakers and panelists include Professor Ajay Agrawal (Economist and Professor at the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management), Emilija Stojmenova Duh (Minister of Digital Transformation, Republic of Slovenia), Zoë Baird (Senior Counsellor to Secretary Gina Raimondo, U.S. Department of Commerce), and Gabriel Mazzini (Team Leader, AI ACT, European Commission). Stephanie Ifayemi (Partnership on AI) moderated the panel discussion.

In his keynote speech, Professor Agrawal centered his discussion on the economic implications of AI systems – their costs and benefits. He also discussed the difference between the Point Solution and System Solution concerning AI technologies.

Professor Agrawal said most AI applications are being brought to market as a point solution to increase the productivity gains of stakeholders. For example, taxi companies provide navigational AIs to make professional taxi drivers better and to increase their productivity.

On the other hand, the system-level solution attempts to redesign the entire system with a new resolution to increase productivity. Uber, for example, was a complete redesign of the system.

During the panel discussion, Minister Duh provided several policy recommendations that Slovenia is making and shared how her country is balancing to address the emerging risks of AI while promoting innovation and adoption of trustworthy AI.

According to Minister Duh, some of their AI priority policies include quality data and open data maturity, setting up data stewards in the public sector, and establishing a national program for AI.

On the other hand, Baird discussed how the United States invests in education and training programs to ensure that individuals are equipped with the skills and knowledge necessary to work with new technologies.

“Productivity improvements can come from multiple directions. It is an area of enormous challenge to create an agile, rapidly-changing training system that enables millions of workers to learn the skills to participate in the economy and enables multiple new entrants and results in an economy that is not concentrated in a few winners,” Ms. Baird added.

Overall, the session provided insights into how policymakers should respond to the latest developments in AI by ensuring that policies promote human well-being and advance the public interest.

Key Takeaways

  • As AI continues to evolve and become increasingly integrated into our daily lives, it is essential that policymakers take a proactive approach to ensure that benefits are maximized, and risks are minimized.
  • It is vital for countries to develop ethical guidelines and standards for AI.
  • Public participation and dialogue are essential in shaping AI policy to ensure that all stakeholders’ interests are taken into account.

Watch the recording of the session here.

Professor Ajay Agrawal of the University of Torotno delivers his keynote speech.