About the Tool
Purpose: Productivity Measurement

The scatter diagram, a cause analysis tool, is also known as a scatter plot, scatter graph, or
correlation chart. It provides information about the relationship between two variables and how
closely they are related. One variable, typically the independent variable, is plotted on the
horizontal axis, while the other variable (the dependent variable) is plotted on the vertical axis.
The distribution of points on the diagram shows the degree of correlation between the
variables.

Lean Six Sigma and data-driven process problem-solving heavily rely on scatter diagrams.
The patterns help with process variable and performance metric analysis by showing the
relationship between variables. They are commonly utilized due to their simple, appealing
visual layout, versatility, ability to include multiple variables, and ability to perform statistical
tests like correlation, regression, and clustering. They convey information effectively without
lengthy explanations.

How to Use the Tool

Estimated Time Needed: 2 hrs

Target Participants or Users: Process Owners, Planning Officers, Quality Control
Inspectors, Project Managers

Steps

  1. Gather and list of paired sets of data.
  2. Determine dependent and independent variables.
  3. Construct the horizontal (x) and vertical (y) axes.
  4. Plot the data by placing a mark at the point corresponding to each x-y pair.
  5. Assign independent variables to the horizontal or x-axis.
  6. Assign dependent variables to the vertical or y-axis.
  7. Label the x and y axes.
  8. Write the diagram title.
Sample Scatter Diagram

About the Tool

Purpose: Productivity Measurement

A Pareto Diagram is a graphic tool that shows the primary factors contributing to problems. Originating from the Pareto Principle, or the 80/20 rule, established by economist and engineer Vilfredo Pareto, it suggests that 80% of the results are derived from 20% of causes. The diagram has two types of data composed of a curved line that represents the data’s cumulative total and bars that show individual values arranged in descending order. There is also an 80% cut-off line to show where the 80/20 rule applies. The few important issues that demand the greatest attention fall under the 80% cut-off line.

Pareto diagrams are a useful tool for root cause and problem analysis in a variety of contexts, including business revenues, traffic, transportation, and manufacturing processes. They break down problems into components and communicate the significant causes of issues that may be impacting efficiency and outputs within departments or sectors. Manufacturers also use it to analyze quality and defect because they show the frequency and severity of certain problems. It helps managers prioritize solving the most important problems first.

How to Use the Tool

A. Organizing the data
1. Identify and list the problems or issues.
2. Organize the problems or issues into groups or categories.
3. Create three columns for categories of problems, their corresponding frequency, and cumulative percentage.

  • To calculate the cumulative percentage, divide the cumulative frequency by the total number of observations. Then multiply the result by 100.

    Cumulative percentage = (Cumulative frequency ÷ n) x 100
  • To calculate the current cumulative frequency, add all other preceding frequencies together

    Cumulative frequency = f1 + f2 +…

4. Organize data based on the frequency in descending order.

B.  Creating the Pareto diagram
1. Construct a chart with the left vertical (y) axis scaled from 0 to at least the grand total 
2. Put the appropriate label on the y-axis.
3. Scale the right vertical axis from 0 to 100 percent, with the 100 percent on the right side with the same height as the grand total on the left side.
4. Label the horizontal axis (x) with the category names in descending order.
5. Draw bars representing the amount of each category. The height of the bars is determined by the left vertical (y) axis.
6. Draw a line that shows the cumulative percentage based on the Pareto data table. The cumulative percentage line is determined by the right vertical (y) axis.

References:

  1. Marson, B. (Ed.) (2020). APO Manual: Public-sector Productivity. Asian Productivity Organization. https://doi.org/10.61145/LGOT4261
  2. Pyzdek, T. & Keller, P. (2013). The Handbook for Quality Management. (3rd Edition). McGraw-Hill, USA.

Quezon City, Philippines – The Development Academy of the Philippines, serving as the focal organization for the Asian Productivity Organization, hosted the Workshop on Needs Assessment of APO Members in Public-Sector Productivity  (PSP) on May 13 to 17, 2024, at Novotel Manila.

The event brought together 29 participants from 14 APO-member economies— Bangladesh, Cambodia, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Türkiye, and Vietnam. The objective was to reassess and identify the evolving needs of and challenges of APO members in PSP.

In his welcome address, Dr. Arsenio Balisacan, secretary of the National Economic and Development Authority and APO director for the Philippines, emphasized the importance of addressing public sector needs amidst rapid technological advancements. He encouraged participants to cultivate an efficient, effective, agile, and forward-thinking public sector.

The workshop commenced with presentations focusing on the current landscape of the public sector in the Asia-Pacific region and the Philippines’ journey as a Center of Excellence on PSP. Subsequent sessions delved into strategies for advancing public-sector productivity, including reforms aimed at bureaucratic efficiency. 

Throughout the program, participants engaged in group workshops and presentations to identify country-specific recommendations and strategies. Case presentations from South Korea, Australia, Malaysia, and Indonesia offered global perspectives and best practices in public-sector productivity.

Pasig City, Philippines – The Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP), as the focal organization of the Asian Productivity Organization Center of Excellence on Public-Sector Productivity (COE-PSP), conducted the final batch of the 2024 Fastbreak Workshop Series: Designing Citizen-Centered Public Services on May 21 to 23, 2024. 

The event was participated by representatives from the Office of the Ombudsman, Civil Service Commission, Home Development Mutual Fund (Pag-IBIG Fund), National Home Mortgage Finance Corporation, Bicol Medical Center, Quirino Memorial Medical Center, City Government of Pasig, City Government of Biñan, Local Government Unit of Bacnotan, La Union, and Local Government Unit of San Miguel, Bulacan.

The workshop served as a platform for innovative thinking and collaboration, where participants delved into various strategies designed to ignite their creativity and problem-solving skills to address identified challenge statements, ultimately enhancing their public service delivery.

The DAP continues to advance public sector productivity through the Productivity Challenge Program, seeking to foster a culture of innovation and efficiency within the public sector.

For more information on the Productivity Challenge, please visit:
https://productivitychallenge.dap.edu.ph/

This article was originally published on the DAP website. https://dap.edu.ph/dap-runs-the-last-leg-of-2024-fastbreak-workshop-series/

About the Tool

Purpose: Productivity Measurement

It records data in a systematically organized manner by tracking the frequency of specific events, defects, or other information. Check sheets are used to see how a process works and to count mistakes by type, location, and cause.

Examples of check sheets:

  1. A Tally Sheet is frequently used to gather information on quality issues and calculate the frequency of occurrences.
  2. A Checklist for Process Probability Distribution is used to obtain primary frequency distribution data.
  3. The Defect Checklist categorizes process flaws based on deformity and frequency of occurrence. 
  4. The Defect Cause Sheet tracks the causes of problems in the process.
  5. A Location Sheet uses a visual representation of the problems by indicating exactly where the problem is in a certain material.
  6. Graphical Sheets help people see information and understand how data spreads out.

Using a check sheet in the workplace helps individuals complete their tasks quickly and efficiently.

How to Use the Tool

Estimated Time Needed: 1 hr

Target Participants or Users: Process Owners, Planning Officers, Quality Control Assessors/Evaluators

Steps

  1. Decide on what data needs to be recorded.
  2. List the specific information to be monitored and provide a space for comments
  3. Determine the frequency of data gathering.
  4. Create the form and label accordingly. Include title, date/time, location, name of the checker/assessor, and categories.
  5. To verify that all necessary information is provided and that the form is user-friendly, pilot test the checksheet and revise based on the given suggestions.
  6. Obtain final approval before using the form.
  7. Educate the users on how to use the form.

References:

Marson, B. (Ed.) (2020). APO Manual: Public-sector Productivity. Asian Productivity Organization https://doi.org/10.61145/LGOT4261

Six Sigma Study Guide https://sixsigmastudyguide.com/check-sheet/

In a bid to revolutionize public service delivery, the Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP), as the focal organization of the the Asian Productivity Organization (APO) Center of Excellence on Public-Sector Productivity (COE-PSP), recently hosted the fifth batch of its 2024 Fastbreak Workshop Series: Designing Citizen-Centered Public Services. The event took place from April 23 to 25, 2024, at the DAP Building in Pasig City.

Drawing 30 participants from key government agencies including the Department of Transportation, Metropolitan Manila Development Authority, Technical Education and Skills Development Authority, National Kidney and Transplant Institute, Dr. Jose N Rodriguez Memorial Hospital and Sanitarium, Technological University of the Philippines, Metropolitan Manila Waterworks and Sewerage System, and the Local Government Unit of Macalelon, Quezon, the workshop served as a hub for innovative thinking and collaboration.

During the intensive sessions, participants were equipped with an arsenal of tools and techniques including Crazy 8s, Design Charettes, the SCAMPER technique, Affinity Diagrams, and storyboarding. These resources aimed to sharpen their creativity, problem-solving skills, and ability to think outside the box, empowering them to ideate and develop groundbreaking solutions for enhancing public services.

The workshop series forms a vital component of the Productivity Challenge Program led by the DAP COE-PSP. This program is designed to cultivate a culture of innovation, increase efficiency, and elevate the quality of public service delivery by fostering consciousness, productivity, and imaginative thinking within public sector organizations.

Through initiatives like the Fastbreak Workshop Series, DAP continues to drive forward-thinking approaches to address the evolving needs of citizens and propel public sector productivity to new heights.

For more information on the Productivity Challenge, please visit:
https://productivitychallenge.dap.edu.ph/

This article was originally published on the DAP website.  https://dap.edu.ph/daps-2024-fastbreak-workshop-series-ignites-innovation-for-citizen-centered-public-services/

Pasig City, Philippines, April 19, 2024 – The Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP), recognized as the Center of Excellence on Public-Sector Productivity (COE-PSP), ran the fourth batch of the 2024 Fastbreak Workshop Series: “Designing Citizen-Centered Public Services” from April 16 to 18, 2024 at the DAP Building in Pasig City.

The intensive workshop convened 23 participants who were equipped with tools and techniques essential for ideating and developing innovative solutions tailored to enhance public services. Among the methodologies used were Crazy 8s, collaborative Design Charrettes, the inventive SCAMPER technique, strategic Affinity Diagrams, and compelling Storyboards.

The participants hailed from six government agencies and state universities and colleges including the Philippine Children’s Medical Center, Siniloan Water District, Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System, Central Bicol State University of Agriculture, Eastern Samar State University, and Negros Oriental State University.

The 2024 Fastbreak: 100K Transaction Hours Reduced initiative stands as a beacon within the Productivity Challenge Program. Spearheaded by the DAP COE-PSP, this multi-year project is designed to raise awareness and enhance the productivity and innovation of public-sector organizations nationwide. Moreover, it aims to foster a culture of innovation and improve productivity, ultimately elevating the quality of service delivery.

For more information on the Productivity Challenge, please visit:
https://productivitychallenge.dap.edu.ph/

This article was originally published on the DAP website.https://dap.edu.ph/dap-runs-fourth-2024-fastbreak-workshop-series/

The Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP), as the Center of Excellence on Public-Sector Productivity (COE-PSP), has concluded the upskilling phase of the Development of Public-Sector Productivity Specialist – Foundation Course (DPSPS-FC) last 18-22 March 2024 in Quezon City.

Thirty-five participants representing 10 public-sector organizations joined the training. Participating agencies include the DAP, Department of Agrarian Reform, Department of Information and Communications Technology, National Commission on Indigenous Peoples Region I, Department of Science and Technology, Department of Energy, National Economic Development Authority, Department of Public Works and Highways, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, and the Department of Justice.

Over the course of five days, the participants were immersed in a series of learning sessions and workshops led by esteemed resource speakers. Topics ranged from understanding productivity concepts and measuring productivity in the public sector to diagnosing and analyzing productivity, and identifying productivity improvement solutions. DAP Resident Fellow Maria Rosario Ablan, Project Officer Philip Ryan Junginger, and Productivity Experts Elena A. Cruz and Niña Maria B. Estudillo provided insights and guidance.

A highlight of the program was a site visit to the Supply and Property Management Office (SPMO) of the University of the Philippines Diliman. Participants gained firsthand exposure to innovative approaches and best practices in productivity enhancement, particularly through the implementation of the Property Accountability Records and Disposal System (PARDS) Portal and the utilization of QR Code Mobile Scanner for inventory of property, plant, equipment (PPE), and semi-expandable properties.A highlight of the program was a site visit to the Supply and Property Management Office (SPMO) of the University of the Philippines Diliman. Participants gained firsthand exposure to innovative approaches and best practices in productivity enhancement, particularly through the implementation of the Property Accountability Records and Disposal System (PARDS) Portal and the utilization of QR Code Mobile Scanner for inventory of property, plant, equipment (PPE), and semi-expandable properties.

The culmination of the upskilling phase saw participants develop their productivity improvement plans (PIPs) based on their learnings and workshop outputs. This plan maps out the key activities of implementing a solution to a problem towards improving performance and efficiency in implementing programs and regulations.

From the upskilling phase, the participants will return to their agencies to prepare for the subsequent phases, such as pitching, implementation of the PIP, and a knowledge and experience-sharing session.

The DPSPS-FC is a comprehensive training program designed to equip participants with the knowledge, skills, and tools necessary to enhance productivity within the public sector. The course covers essential aspects of public-sector management, efficiency improvement, and the application of productivity frameworks.

Twenty-four participants from seven national government agencies (NGAs) and state universities and Colleges (SUCs) joined the batch 3 of the 2024 Fastbreak Workshop Series: Designing Citizen-Centered Public Services held on 19-21 March 2024 at DAP, Pasig City.

Participating agencies include the Bases Conversion and Development Authority, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Commission on Higher Education—National Capital Region, Department of Social Welfare and Development, Marikina Polytechnic College, Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office and Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency.

Throughout the workshop, participants were assisted in understanding the core values and needs of their clients, laying a foundation for citizen-centered service design. They were equipped with tools on how to gather ideas for service delivery improvement such as Crazy 8s, Design Charrettes, SCAMPER, Affinity Diagram, and Storyboard, empowering them to ideate and develop innovative solutions to enhance their respective services. On the final day, they tested their solutions and made adjustments to their design prior to translating these into a plan.

The DAP, as the Center of Excellence on Public-Sector Productivity, will be accepting participants for the remaining sessions scheduled on 16 – 18 April 2024 and 23 – 25 April 2024. Nominating officers are encouraged to download the nomination form from the provided link and carefully review the accompanying guidelines before completing and submitting the document.

Download the nomination form here: https://productivitychallenge.dap.edu.ph/2024-fastbreak-workshop/

The 2024 Fastbreak: 100K Transaction Hours Reduced initiative is part of the Productivity Challenge Program, a multi-year project led by the DAP COE-PSP. This program aims to elevate awareness and enhance the productivity and innovation of public-sector organizations across the Philippines. It seeks to cultivate a culture of innovation and improve productivity, ultimately enhancing service delivery quality.

For more information on the Productivity Challenge, please visit https://productivitychallenge.dap.edu.ph/ or send an email inquiry to productivitychallenge@dap.edu.ph.

The Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP), as the Center of Excellence on Public-Sector Productivity (COE-PSP), hosted the second iteration of the 2024 Fastbreak Workshop Series: Designing Citizen-Centered Public Services from 12 to 14 March 2024 at DAP, Pasig City.

Twenty-two participants representing five public-sector organizations attended this workshop. These organizations include Isabela State University—Ilagan and Echague Campus, the Local Government of Rodriguez, Rizal, the National Privacy Commission, the National Youth Commission, and the Social Security System.

The workshop series holistically incorporates the tools and methodologies of design thinking, service design, and design sprint by analyzing citizen feedback and making the necessary changes to work processes, infrastructure, and channels to deliver value in public services. Participants will go through three phases: Upskilling, Pitching, and Pilot-testing, ensuring that their outputs commit to reducing service transaction hours and contribute to this year’s Productivity Challenge, the 2024 Fastbreak: 100K Transaction Hours Reduced.

There will be succeeding runs in April. Government agencies and offices can now nominate participants following the nomination guidelines. Email notifications will be sent to those accepted for the next runs.

The 2024 Fastbreak: 100K Transaction Hours Reduced initiative is part of the Productivity Challenge Program, a multi-year project led by the DAP COE-PSP. This program aims to elevate awareness and enhance the productivity and innovation of public-sector organizations across the Philippines. It seeks to cultivate a culture of innovation and improve productivity, ultimately enhancing service delivery quality.

For more information on the Productivity Challenge, please visit: https://productivitychallenge.dap.edu.ph/